Raspberry Pi 4 USB Boot Config Guide for SSD / Flash Drives

Raspberry Pi 4 with Samsung 950 Pro NVME SSD
Raspberry Pi 4 with Samsung 950 Pro NVME SSD

UPDATE 11/27/2020 – The new Raspberry Pi bootloader is out which makes these instructions largely obsolete. Check out the new Raspberry Pi Bootloader Configuration Guide here

The Raspberry Pi 4 is finally here and has a lot of exciting changes. One very major downside is that it doesn’t support true USB booting yet out of the box (like the 3 series did). The Raspberry Pi foundation states that it is being worked on and will be added back with a future update. No timeline has been given yet for that to happen but they state it’s one of their top priorities.

Most of my projects heavily depend on having good performing storage so sitting and waiting was not an acceptable solution. In this guide I’ll show you a workaround to use USB devices as your rootfs device and use a Micro SD card as bootloader only which gives us full SSD performance after boot! To see exactly how much of a performance difference this makes (spoiler: it’s gigantic) check out the Raspberry Pi Storage Benchmarks.

I highly recommend doing this on a completely new install. If you try to upgrade your old ones and something goes wrong there’s a good chance you might lose data. We will be modifying the boot partition, resizing partitions, etc. so don’t use a drive with any data on it unless you are positive you have all of the steps down!

Compatible USB Adapters

The Raspberry Pi 4 is proving to be picky about what SATA, M.2, etc. adapters will work in the USB 3.0 port. The USB 3.0 ports are the ones in the middle that are blue inside. The black ones are USB 2.0 and won’t give you the faster speeds the new Pi offers.

It’s very likely that some of these will be fixed via software and firmware updates and the Raspberry Pi Foundation has several open known issues related to USB 3. Until that happens though I will maintain a list here of known working ones and known problematic ones. It’s still very early in the release of the Pi 4 so we still have a lot to learn about which adapters work / don’t work. If you have working and nonworking adapters leave a comment and I’ll add it in this list.

If the adapters worked before on older Pis then one thing you can try is putting them in the black USB 2.0 ports. Obviously this is stupid because we all want the Pi 4 performance gains but if you end up needing to buy a new adapter this will give you a workaround until a replacement arrives!

Find USB adapter chipset

There are certain chipsets used in adapters that are known to be working/not working.

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ lsusb
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 174c:55aa ASMedia Technology Inc. Name: ASM1051E SATA 6Gb/s bridge, ASM1053E SATA 6Gb/s bridge, ASM1153 SATA 3Gb/s bridge, ASM1153E SATA 6Gb/s bridge
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

This is a lsusb dump of all my connected USB devices. I have bolded the line with the USB bridge device. We can see that the chipset is ASM1153E

Known Good Chipsets

  • ASMedia ASM115X (StarTech 2.5″ SATA, UGREEN USB Enclosure, several others)

Known Working Adapters

StarTech 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.1 Adapter2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0Verified working in comments (thanks Fredrick)
StarTech 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Adapter2.5″ SATA to USB 3.1Verified working great by myself and others on Pi 4
Orico Transparent 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Enclosure2.5″ SATA to USB 3.1Confirmed working by Ashjas in comments
ELUTENG 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Adapter2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0The ELUTENG is one of the known working 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 adapters for the Pi 4
CSL 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Adapter2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0The CSL SL adapter is confirmed to be working by Krikitt in the comments. Available in Europe. Not available in US.
Shinestar NVME to USB 3.0 AdapterM.2 NVME to USB 3.0This is the adapter I’m using in the picture at the top of the article. It is for NVME M.2 drives only (need different one for M.2 SATA).
QNINE M.2 SATA to USB 3.0 EnclosureM.2 SATA to USB 3.0I used this enclosure to benchmark M.2 SATA Lite-On and SanDisk drives — working great in 3.0 ports.
UGREEN M.2 NVMe SSD Enclosure, USB C 3.1 Gen 2M.2 NVME to USB-C 3.1Confirmed working in comments by Chad D.
UGreen M.2 SATA to USB 3.1 EnclosureUGreen M.2 SATA to USB 3.1 EnclosureReported as working well in the comments by John H. Reinhardt with a ASM1051E chipset
Tanbin mSATA to USB AdaptermSATA to USB 3.0I used this mSATA to USB adapter for my Crucial M550 benchmark — working in 3.0 ports.
Generic mSATA to USB 3.0 Adapter (fe2008)mSATA to USB 3.1Confirmed working in comments by Nico
Canakit Raspberry Pi 4 Power Supply (USB-C)USB-C Power SupplyCanakit has been making very reliable power supplies for several Pi generations now

Known Problematic Adapters (VERY COMMON)

Fix (some) USB Adapter Problems Using Quirks

Some of the very common adapters on the naughty list above (such as the Sabrent) can be made to work by using USB quirks to disable UAS mode on the drive. This lowers performance, but it’s still much faster than a SD card and your adapter won’t go to waste.

To find out the quirks we need to find the device ID string for your adapter and then add an entry to cmdline.txt telling the kernel to apply them on boot.

Find Your Adapter

To apply the quirks we first need to get the adapter id. We will use the sudo lsusb command:

$ sudo lsusb
 Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
 Bus 002 Device 002: ID 174c:55aa ASMedia Technology Inc. Name: ASM1051E SATA 6Gb/s bridge, ASM1053E SATA 6Gb/s bridge, ASM1153 SATA 3Gb/s bridge, ASM1153E SATA 6Gb/s bridge
 Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
 Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
 Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

On line 2 we can see my ASM1051E SATA 6Gb/s bridge adapter (it’s the known working StarTech.com 2.5″ SATA to USB adapter). You will see something very similar to mine when you run the command and it shouldn’t be too hard to figure out which device it is. If you need more information add a -v switch to make the command sudo lsusb -v. This can sometimes add some additional details to make it easier to figure out which one is your adapter.

If you’re still not sure, we have another command that between the two that can narrow things down. Type / paste the following:

sudo dmesg | grep usb

 [    0.828535] usb usb3: New USB device found, idVendor=1d6b, idProduct=0002, bcdDevice= 4.19
 [    0.828568] usb usb3: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=1
 [    0.828597] usb usb3: Product: DWC OTG Controller
 [    0.828620] usb usb3: Manufacturer: Linux 4.19.75-v7l+ dwc_otg_hcd
 [    0.828644] usb usb3: SerialNumber: fe980000.usb
 [    0.830051] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
 [    0.830182] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
 [    0.836488] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
 [    0.836511] usbhid: USB HID core driver
 [    0.971598] usb 1-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
 [    1.154217] usb 1-1: New USB device found, idVendor=2109, idProduct=3431, bcdDevice= 4.20
 [    1.154254] usb 1-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=1, SerialNumber=0
 [    1.154281] usb 1-1: Product: USB2.0 Hub
 [    1.301989] usb 2-1: new SuperSpeed Gen 1 USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
 [    1.332965] usb 2-1: New USB device found, idVendor=174c, idProduct=55aa, bcdDevice= 1.00
 [    1.332999] usb 2-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=2, Product=3, SerialNumber=1
 [    1.333026] usb 2-1: Product: ASM105x
 [    1.333048] usb 2-1: Manufacturer: ASMT
 [    1.333071] usb 2-1: SerialNumber: 123456789B79F

This is the dmesg log showing the hardware detection as hardware is activated on the Pi. If your log is really long you can generate fresh entries by just unplugging a device and plugging it back in and running the command again. Here we can clearly see that the ASM105x is what our StarTech adapter is being detected as.

Now we can go back to our first lsusb command and we want the 8 characters from the ID field that comes right after the Device:

Bus 002 Device 002: ID 174c:55aa ASMedia Technology Inc. Name: ASM1051E SATA 6Gb/s bridge

Our adapter’s ID is: 174c:55aa

Applying Quirks

To apply the quirks to our USB adapter we are going to edit /boot/cmdline.txt. Type:

sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt

We are going to add the following entry into the very front of cmdline.txt:

usb-storage.quirks=XXXX:XXXX:u

In place of the X’s above you will put in your adapter’s ID that we got before. With the example commands I gave above mine would look like this: usb-storage.quirks=174c:55aa:u. After this my cmdline.txt looks like this (everything should be one continuous line, no line breaks!):

usb-storage.quirks=174c:55aa:u console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=d34db33f-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait

Now reboot the Pi. If the Pi fails to boot you can plug the SD card into the computer and go to /boot/cmdline.txt and undo the change we did so you can boot back in with your SD card.

Verifying Quirks

Once you have rebooted after changing cmdline.txt we can verify the quirks have been applied by doing another dmesg | grep usb command:

sudo dmesg | grep usb
 [    1.332924] usb 2-1: New USB device found, idVendor=174c, idProduct=55aa, bcdDevice= 1.00
 [    1.332957] usb 2-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=2, Product=3, SerialNumber=1
 [    1.332983] usb 2-1: Product: ASM105x
 [    1.333006] usb 2-1: Manufacturer: ASMT
 [    1.333028] usb 2-1: SerialNumber: 123456789B79F
 [    1.335967] usb 2-1: UAS is blacklisted for this device, using usb-storage instead
 [    1.336071] usb 2-1: UAS is blacklisted for this device, using usb-storage instead
 [    1.336103] usb-storage 2-1:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
 [    1.336479] usb-storage 2-1:1.0: Quirks match for vid 174c pid 55aa: c00000
 [    1.336611] scsi host0: usb-storage 2-1:1.0

This time we can see in dmesg that UAS was blacklisted for the device and it has loaded with the usb-storage driver instead. This driver tends to be more compatible with the “problematic adapters” but the performance is usually significantly lower. It’s definitely worth a try though as some adapters do better with the quirks performance-wise. The only way to know for sure is to run a benchmark (see storage benchmark section near the end).

USB Boot Instructions

There are a lot of steps to follow to set everything up properly. If you make a mistake the first time don’t spend too much time trying to correct it or figure out what you did wrong. It’s usually faster to burn the images again and reconfigure again rather than try to figure out which step you might have made a typo on. It’s much easier the second time!

Prepare SD Card

Download the latest Raspbian release from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/. Both Lite or Desktop versions will work. Win32DiskImager (Windows) or balenaEtcher (Linux, Mac OS X, Windows) are highly recommended to burn the images.

Note: Don’t attempt to use raw dd commands to write the images. Too many silly things can go wrong that are checked for/fixed by the recommended programs. Do yourself a big favor and use one of the recommends to avoid spending a ton of time troubleshooting basic imaging problems!

Preparing SSD

We are going to burn a second identical copy of Raspbian to the SSD. This ensures everything the Pi needs to boot is there so we can use the SD card as a bootloader but our actual system will be on our nice fast SSD drive.

Note: Make sure you create the empty file named “ssh” on the boot partition of both drives if you are headless or don’t have a mouse/keyboard attached so you can ssh in on the first boot.

First Boot (SD card only, SSD unplugged)

Insert your freshly imaged SD card into the Pi and connect the power. Sign into the Pi for the first time.

Don’t do an apt-get upgrade/dist-upgrade or any additional configuration yet. Just stick with the instructions until we have finished configuration (especially since if something goes wrong you may have to start over and any other setup you did will be lost).

Once the Pi has finished booting and you have signed in for the first time plug in your SSD to your Pi’s USB 3.0 ports. The USB 3.0 ports are the ones that have the blue plastic inside instead of the black plastic (the black ones are USB 2.0 ports).

Change PARTUUID

We need to change the PARTUUID of our SSD’s partitions so the Pi doesn’t get confused about what device to boot from. Right now the partitions on both the SD card and the SSD are an exact match and we need them to be different so we can tell the Pi to boot specifically from our SSD’s partition.

We are going to use fdisk to change the SSD’s PARTUUID to the hexadecimal d34db33f to make our SSD easy to identify. Use the following:

$ sudo fdisk /dev/sda

 Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.33.1).
 Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
 Be careful before using the write command.
 Command (m for help): p
 Disk /dev/sda: 238.5 GiB, 256060514304 bytes, 500118192 sectors
 Disk model: ASM105x
 Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 Disklabel type: dos
 Disk identifier: 0x6c586e13
 Device     Boot  Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
 /dev/sda1         8192    532479    524288   256M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
 /dev/sda2       532480 500118191 499585712 238.2G 83 Linux
 Command (m for help): x
 Expert command (m for help): i
 Enter the new disk identifier: 0xd34db33f
 Disk identifier changed from 0x6c586e13 to 0xd34db33f.
 Expert command (m for help): r
 Command (m for help): w
 The partition table has been altered.
 Syncing disks.

That’s it. Let’s verify our change using blkid:

$ sudo blkid

/dev/mmcblk0p1: LABEL_FATBOOT="boot" LABEL="boot" UUID="5203-DB74" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="6c586e13-01"
/dev/mmcblk0p2: LABEL="rootfs" UUID="2ab3f8e1-7dc6-43f5-b0db-dd5759d51d4e" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="6c586e13-02"
/dev/sda1: LABEL_FATBOOT="boot" LABEL="boot" UUID="5203-DB74" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="d34db33f-01"
/dev/sda2: LABEL="rootfs" UUID="2ab3f8e1-7dc6-43f5-b0db-dd5759d51d4e" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="d34db33f-02"

Your /dev/mmcblk0 and /dev/sda devices should now be different from each other. The SD card’s ID is 6c586e13 and the SSD’s PARTUUID is now

Update /boot/cmdline.txt

We are going to change cmdline.txt to point to the SSD for booting instead of the SD card. First make a backup of your existing cmdline.txt file with the following command:

sudo cp /boot/cmdline.txt /boot/cmdline.txt.bak

We’ve now created a backup you can restore if something goes wrong. If you need to restore your backup plug the SD card into a computer/device and replace cmdline.txt with cmdline.txt.bak that we made above. Now your Pi should boot normally again.

Open up /boot/cmdline.txt using nano or your favorite text editor:

sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt

The existing file will look like this:

console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=6c586e13-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait quiet init=/usr/lib/raspi-config/init_resize.sh

We are going to change the root=PARTUUID section to point to our new d34db33f PARTUUID like the following:

console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=d34db33f-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait quiet init=/usr/lib/raspi-config/init_resize.sh

Make the change and double check the line is what it should be,then press Ctrl+X to save our changes.

Note: cmdline.txt should be one long solid line with no breaks — don’t add any line breaks or the system won’t boot and you’ll need to restore the backup we made earlier!

Test SSD

We are now ready to test booting from the SSD. Restart your Pi by issuing a

sudo reboot

The first boot with your SSD can be slow due to running fsck on the drive. If you have a really large SSD it can take surprisingly long to check all that space. Once the check completes it will mark the drive clean and skip the disk check from now on. It can take over a minute or two sometimes for really big drives so give it at least that much time before assuming it didn’t work.

After signing in we can verify that the SSD is being used like this:

$ findmnt -n -o SOURCE /

 /dev/sda2

Verify that partition has switched over as shown below to /dev/sda2 (SSD) instead of /dev/mmcblk0p2 (SD card).

Update /etc/fstab

We are now ready to edit the /etc/fstab file to point to our updated drive. To edit the file type:

sudo nano /etc/fstab

Your current file will look like this:

$ cat /etc/fstab
proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
PARTUUID=6c586e13-01  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
PARTUUID=6c586e13-02  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1
sudo nano /etc/fstab

Your current file will look similar to this (PARTUUID varies based on your Raspbian image version):

cat /etc/fstab
proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
PARTUUID=6c586e13-01  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
PARTUUID=6c586e13-02  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1

We want to change the root ( / ) partition (PARTUUID ending with -02) to load our SSD’s PARTUUID instead of the SD card. Replace the 2nd partition’s PARTUUID field on the last line in the file with the d34db33f label we applied earlier with fdisk. After making the change my /etc/fstab file looks like this:

proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
PARTUUID=6c586e13-01  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
PARTUUID=d34db33f-02  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1

Press Ctrl+X to tell nano to save our changes. Now type sudo reboot to restart the Pi.

Note: We want to leave the first partition (https://origin.jamesachambers.com/boot) on the SD card. If you change this to the SSD then apt will update your SSD instead of the SD card so they won’t be used during boot! Remember that we are using the SD card as a bootloader and that is why the firmware updates (such as start.elf, etc) should go there instead of the SSD’s boot partition (which is never used).

Resizing Filesystem

By default the partition on the SSD / Flash drive will only be 1.8G. The Pi expands this automatically on micro SD drives but we will need to do it ourselves for a SSD / Flash drive. To do this we need to expand the partition and then resize the file system.

First let’s open fdisk and print the partitions:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo fdisk /dev/sda
 Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.33.1).
 Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
 Be careful before using the write command.
 Command (m for help): p
 Disk /dev/sda: 238.5 GiB, 256060514304 bytes, 500118192 sectors
 Disk model: ASM105x
 Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 Disklabel type: dos
 Disk identifier: 0xd34db33f
 Device     Boot  Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
 /dev/sda1         8192  532479  524288  256M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
 /dev/sda2       532480 4390911 3858432  1.9G 83 Linux

There is the line we need. Our start value for /dev/sda2 (rootfs) is 532480. Next we need to remove and recreate the partition as a larger size.

If you make any mistakes during this command just close fdisk by pressing q. The changes won’t be written to disk. If you mess up any of the commands the drive will no longer boot and you’ll have to start over again so be careful!

Command (m for help): d
 Partition number (1,2, default 2): 2
 Partition 2 has been deleted.
 Command (m for help): n
 Partition type
    p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
    e   extended (container for logical partitions)
 Select (default p): p
 Partition number (2-4, default 2): 2
 First sector (2048-500118191, default 2048): 532480
 Last sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{K,M,G,T,P} (532480-500118191, default 500118191): 500118191 
 Created a new partition 2 of type 'Linux' and of size 238.2 GiB.
 Partition #2 contains a ext4 signature.
 Do you want to remove the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: N
 Command (m for help): w
 The partition table has been altered.
 Syncing disks.

If everything went well then type “w” and press enter. Otherwise press “q” to quit and try again. Once you enter “w” the changes will be permanently written to disk!

Now reboot the system. Type “df -h” to view the current disk:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ df -h
 Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/root       1.8G  1.3G  415M  76% /
 devtmpfs        1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /dev
 tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev/shm
 tmpfs           2.0G  8.5M  1.9G   1% /run
 tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
 tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
 /dev/mmcblk0p1  253M   52M  201M  21% /boot
 tmpfs           391M     0  391M   0% /run/user/1000

We can see our disk is still 1.8G even after resizing the partition. That’s because we still have one more step! We need to resize the filesystem to fill our new partition space. For this we will use “sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2”:

sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2
 resize2fs 1.44.5 (15-Dec-2018)
 Filesystem at /dev/sda2 is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
 old_desc_blocks = 1, new_desc_blocks = 15
 The filesystem on /dev/sda2 is now 62448214 (4k) blocks long.

Now let’s check df -h again:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ df -h
 Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/root       235G  1.3G  224G   1% /
 devtmpfs        1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /dev
 tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev/shm
 tmpfs           2.0G  8.5M  1.9G   1% /run
 tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
 tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
 /dev/mmcblk0p1  253M   52M  201M  21% /boot
 tmpfs           391M     0  391M   0% /run/user/1000

And that’s it! You will now be using all of your space on your drive.

Update Pi using apt

Now that we’ve updated fstab it is safe (and highly recommended) to update your Pi’s software. Type “sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade” to update the system and firmware.

Your system will now be running completely from your USB drive! To verify this, run the command “findmnt -n -o SOURCE” / to ensure your root partition has switched over as shown below to /dev/sda2 instead of /dev/mmcblk0p2.

Verify SSD Performance

You can make sure everything is running correctly (and as fast as it should be) by running my quick storage benchmark. You can run the benchmark with the following one-liner:

sudo curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/TheRemote/PiBenchmarks/master/Storage.sh | sudo bash

This will give you a score you can compare to the other Raspberry Pi Storage Benchmark results and make sure that you are getting an equivalent speed to your peers with the same device!

Conclusion

The Samsung 950 Pro NVME drive in the featured picture scored a 9189 on the Raspberry Pi Storage Benchmark. The previous all-time record score on a Pi 3B+ was 3561. The performance gains are very real and very dramatic.

For me getting this performance is well worth having to waste a micro SD card just to be a bootloader. I am largely after the USB 3.0 bus and gigabit ethernet performance improvements and using this method I am able to achieve the performance I was after without waiting an indeterminate amount of time for the feature to be added back in!

Although there are ongoing compatibility issues and we lack the super easy native USB booting support we had before I’m more than willing to go through the growing pains to finally get rid that ancient USB 2.0 bus! Just make sure if you are planning to build a system you plan your adapters and parts accordingly.

672 thoughts on “Raspberry Pi 4 USB Boot Config Guide for SSD / Flash Drives”

  1. Avatar for Sabre

    Orico 2.5″ SATA to USB C Transparent Enclosure (2139U3_R2.0)
    Confirmed working for me but requires quirks (usb-storage.quirks=152d:0578:u)

    I think also only with the latest stable bootloader version as of Jul 16 2020 (version 45291ce619884192a6622bef8948fb5151c2b456 (release))?
    This enclosure wasn’t working / had issues while using the bootloader version c302dea096cc79f102cec12aeeb51abf392bd781 (release) from Jun 15 2020

    Orico 2.5″ SATA to USB C Black Enclosure (2588US3-R2.3)
    Confirming that this one also qorks and also requires quirks (usb-storage.quirks=0080:a001:u)

    1. Avatar for Robson

      Hello again,
      After I run the update-usbids command and then lsusb, I got this: ID 2109:0715 VIA Labs, Inc. VL817 SATA Adaptor

      Hope it works. Later I will post the results.

    2. Avatar for Robson

      Hello SABRE,

      I bought an orico usb 3.1 gen2 type C transparent enclosure too. How can I discover if it is 2139U3_R2.0 or 2588US3-R2.3 ? Thanks

      1. Avatar for Sabre

        They have quite a few models these days but thankfully all have different appearances, easiest way I’d say would be to compare the appearance on their site: https://www.orico.me/product-category/computer-peripheral/classic-storage/2-5-hdd-enclosure
        Outside of that unfortunately the only way to know 100% exactly what board it uses is to take it apart and look for some indication like this: https://imgur.com/a/hNQQSdN

        The black one I have is just a 3.0 model, plain black which has an aluminium bottom and plastic top: https://www.orico.me/product/orico-2-5-inch-usb3-0-hard-drive-enclosure-2588us3

        And the transparent enclosure (2139U3_R2.0) I have is: https://www.orico.me/product/orico-2-5-inch-transparent-usb3-0-hard-drive-enclosure-2139u3

  2. Avatar for Jason

    I’ve just managed to get a Sabrent EC-UK30 enclosure working without quirks enabled. At first, it wasn’t working without quirks, but I discovered there was a firmware update available for the enclosure at: https://www.sabrent.com/download/ec-uk30-ec-um30-update/

    After the firmware update, I’m able to successfully boot and run without quirks mode enabled.

    So, if you’re having trouble, check to see if there’s a firmware update that will help!

  3. Avatar for Lipown

    Orico Transparent 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 – There are two versions – One transparent is really transparent so you can see circuit board wit JSM… chip clearly trough the glass – NOT WORKING WITHOTU QUIRKS. The second has this part with of circuit board covered with aluminium and has probably the ASM… Unfortunatelly this one is not sold in Czech Rep.

  4. Avatar for LK

    I can confirm the UGREEN USB3 SATA enclosure model 30848 (https://www.amazon.de/gp/product/B06XWRRMYX/ref=as_li_ss_tl?ref_=nav_signin&&linkCode=ll1&tag=codemallet06-21&linkId=380eb434727f871bc27e00e02034e875&language=en_GB) works for booting and from what I can see with UAS support / without needing quirks.

    Also, now that the USB boot support is in the stable firmware release, for an upgrade to fully booting from an USB3 SSD you just have to update the bootloader and clone the SD card to the SSD: https://www.tomshardware.com/how-to/boot-raspberry-pi-4-usb

  5. Avatar for John

    I can confirm that the Orico Transparent 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Enclosure is running fine on the USB 3 port without any Quirk changes.

  6. Avatar for Lipown

    I can confirm Orico Transparent 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Enclosure bought on Alza.cz (Czech Re) have JMS567 and is not booting at all. Tried yesterday, gonna return today.

  7. Avatar for Lipown

    I found strange behavior yesterday when copying to my second drive and tried to play a movie simultaneously. It was heavy glitchy so I decided today to try quirks again after few moths. What I found even without anything about usb-storage.quirks=XXXX:XXXX:u written in cmdline dmesg showed:

    [ 2.051515] usb 2-2: new SuperSpeed Gen 1 USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
    [ 2.082696] usb 2-2: New USB device found, idVendor=152d, idProduct=0578, bcdDevice= 4.04
    [ 2.086037] usb 2-2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
    [ 2.089375] usb 2-2: Product: USB 3.0 Device
    [ 2.092692] usb 2-2: Manufacturer: USB 3.0 Device
    [ 2.095992] usb 2-2: SerialNumber: 000000004A44
    [ 2.102629] usb-storage 2-2:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
    [ 2.106289] usb-storage 2-2:1.0: Quirks match for vid 152d pid 0578: 1000000
    [ 2.109635] scsi host0: usb-storage 2-2:1.0

    It seems that qirks are enabled but how could it be if it is not enabled in cmdline first? How to disable them then?

    My cable is:
    Bus 002 Device 002: ID 152d:0578 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp. JMS567 SATA 6Gb/s bridge

  8. Avatar for Lipown

    Dears, as I am running SSD and 3.5 HDD I am loking also for working USB SATA adapter for 3,5 which must be powered. Anybody has idea here please?

  9. Avatar for Gert

    Hi, I have installed raspberry pi OS on a SSD and it is booting from SSD. I have noticed that the green led is frequently flashing (~4 times every second or so). After some Google searching I found out it has something to do with the (missing) SD card. So I have put a SD card into the slot and the flashing stops. How can I stop the flashing without having to put a SD card in the slot?

  10. Avatar for Roman

    orico 2139U3 – ID 152d:0578 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp. JMS567 SATA 6Gb/s bridge cannot boot. works only with quircks.
    tryed with different firmware. ubuntu server 20.04 also doesnt boot in uasp mode

  11. Avatar for Brian Stephens

    Hey James… Thanks so much for this…
    My experience with 2 4B’s (1gig and 4 Gig)
    Neither liked the Orico Transparent (2139U3).. The Pi saw them but refused to boot with it (originally thought it was the instructions!)

    Changed the to the starcom USB32SAT3CB and they bootup just fine

    I’ve only done the speed test on the 4Gb unit it has a crucial MX.300 275 gb and it got a score of 8185 pretty impressive

  12. Avatar for Mr.G

    I too thought I was going mad
    I updated to Jun 15 2020 14:36:19
    I had tried copying over the 14 dat and elf files, updating the firmware to USB / SSD.
    Tried usb quirks that got me past the bootloader
    Then found
    It was the actual drive or controller.
    Kingston data traveller is very slow and flaky
    Sandisk SSD’s are quik and fast but need a good USB3 to SSD cable. After trying a few, found one that works
    ID 174c:55aa ASMedia Technology Inc. Name: ASM1051E SATA 6Gb/s bridge

  13. Avatar for Tachyon

    Thanks!
    Used this article to get mine working.
    Configuration:
    Pi4 / 2GB
    Raspberry Pi OS
    Mediasonic SATA to USB Cable – USB 3.0 / USB 3.1 gen 1
    USB ID
    Bus 002 Device 002: ID 152d:0578 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp. JMS567 SATA 6Gb/s bridge
    Drive: ADATA SU655 SDD

    Note that I could only get this to work with quirks enabled. :'(

    Category Test Result
    HDParm Disk Read 218.97 MB/s
    HDParm Cached Disk Read 167.95 MB/s
    DD Disk Write 177 MB/s
    FIO 4k random read 4951 IOPS (19806 KB/s)
    FIO 4k random write 5529 IOPS (22116 KB/s)
    IOZone 4k read 26822 KB/s
    IOZone 4k write 23514 KB/s
    IOZone 4k random read 18746 KB/s
    IOZone 4k random write 20187 KB/s

    Score: 5835

  14. Avatar for Raspilover

    Hi guys,

    as others before me have mentioned, there’s an easier way to do this SSD upgrade via new RPI4 firmware. Here’s a guide I was successful with with 7 different installations (all had StarTech adapter, I had one Orico and it was not working properly). If you’re using Startech, there’s no need for Quirks

    If you have raspberry SD card OS prepared, you can skip to 6

    1. format your SD card via SD Card Formater in Windows
    2. download 64bit version of raspberry OS (I was doing this for 4/8GB versions, it works with 32bit version too though)
    https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspios_arm64/images/
    3. create OS image via RPI imager on SD card
    4. insert new SD card into Raspberry, install new OS and after installation restart to check if it works
    5. if you’ve successfully booted into OS, do sudo apt update and afterwards sudo apt full-upgrade

    DON’T DO ANYTHING ELSE NOW
    You can now use this SD card whenever you need to create a new PI (and skip 1-5)
    Now comes the important part

    6. upgrade EEPROM firmware to version 2020-06-12
    Sudo nano /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update
    change FIRMWARE_RELEASE_STATUS = “critical” to FIRMWARE_RELEASE_STATUS = “beta”
    7. now check if you have the correct firmware on your PI
    ls /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/beta/
    if you have pieeprom-2020-06-12.bin, you can run
    sudo rpi-eeprom-update -d -f /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/beta/pieeprom-2020-06-12.bin

    if not download it there (maybe newer ones work too, I was successful with this one)
    8. reboot your PI (sudo reboot)
    9. check if the firmware was upgraded
    vcgencmd bootloader_version
    10. use native raspberry SD Card Copier to copy SD card to SSD (leave New Partition UUIDs unchecked !)
    11. when finished sudo shutdown now, turn off your PI, remove SD Card and you’re ready to go with SSD.

    The first boot can take some time (1-2 min) but everything should work great.
    For headless (boot without display) I recommend to turn on SSH in Raspi config and sudo nano /boot/config.txt unhash hdmi_force_hotplug=1

    1. Avatar for malvism

      Thanks.
      I used stable image 2020-06-15.bin.
      And as I used the lite image I did not have an SD card copier, so I used this instead https://raw.githubusercontent.com/raspberrypi-ui/piclone/master/src/backup
      just run chmod +x backup
      ./backup /dev/sda (or the appropriate disk number)
      Afterwards you need to change disk UUID to the same as SD card , check it with blkid
      than halt, remove SD card and hope it will boot 🙂
      It takes a little bit longer to start booting, as the bootloader is searching for SD card until timeout. The boot process from SSD is of course faster than from SD 🙂

      1. Avatar for jamesachambers

        Hey Malvism,

        Thanks for the report! My 8GB Raspberry Pi is arriving in the mail soon and the first thing I want to do with it is fire up the new bootloader firmware up on it.

        I’ll update this post accordingly!

        1. Avatar for Mike

          Hey James, this guide is wonderful, have been running successfully in this configuration for a while now. Thanks so much!

          Now that RPi4 has official “boot from SSD” support I would like to make use of that as it sounds like you’re planning to do as well. Any suggestions for people moving from this setup where `/boot` lives on the microsd and everything else is on the SSD to moving entirely to the SSD? Is there an easy way to just move that last piece over to the SSD and eliminate the microsd entirely without rebuilding from scratch?

          1. Avatar for Jonathan

            I would be interested in knowing this also, can we simply move over the relevant /boot things to the usb-drive with official FW now supporting usb-boot?
            Also: Will the quirks mode be needed anymore after the FW update?

    2. Avatar for jamesachambers

      Hey Raspilover,

      Absolutely! The new bootloader firmware supports this. I will be trying it pretty soon here and adding these methods into the post as well but if anyone is reading this before that the new beta firmloader is now available!

  15. Avatar for christian nitescu
    christian nitescu

    hi i have tried to follow this how to but not lycats and to be able to fix this i would ask:
    -should raspberry PI OS be installed when starting with
    – sudo lsusb,
    -sudo dmesg | grip usb,
    – sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt,
    – sudo dmesg | grabbed usb or not.
    Then you should make the Prepare SD Card,
    -reinstall the Raspberry PI OS and do
    – sudo fdisk / dev / sda, -sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt ,
    -. when to test, Test SSD sd card should be in or not.
    should you answer i am grateful christian.

    1. Avatar for Corbin

      Success! I managed to get the preinstalled 18.04.4 Ubuntu from this website on the 500GB SanDisk Extreme Portable SSD. I can already boot Raspberry OS with the new eeprom update but I prefer Ubuntu which sadly isn’t supported yet. There were 3 differences in my install. The first being that I didn’t have to mess with the adapter settings in cmdline.txt, I believe this is just because it is a portable drive? (I also am running the new STABLE eeprom) The second difference involved the root change in /boot/cmdline.txt, Ubuntu stores this file in /boot/firmware/cmdline.txt and when you go to change the root you must change it from root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 to root=PARTUUID=d34db33f-02 (you must add the PARTUUID text to use the partition name on the SSD). The last difference was that the file system was already resized properly, but for good measure I ran through the steps anyways. Thank you for this guide, this is by far the most stable implementation I’ve found for this.

  16. Avatar for Paul Wratt

    Hey James, thanks for doing these articles, especially the extra stuff here about interface chipsets. Have you tried the USB-Boot beta firmware?

    When you are running your storage test script, how do you target a specific drive?

      1. Avatar for jamesachambers

        Hey Paul,

        The readers have proven a little difficult to detect so far because when you ask them what drive they are most of them report back something generic like the name of the USB adapter. I’ll keep exploring ways to detect them!

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