Raspberry Pi 4 Bootloader Firmware Updating / Recovery Guide

Raspberry Pi 4
Raspberry Pi 4 with built in EEPROM chip

All of the previous generations of Raspberry Pi contained all of their firmware on the SD card. Starting with the Raspberry Pi 4 the device actually has onboard upgradable firmware stored on an EEPROM chip separate from your storage. Updating this firmware is very important as one of the first released updates reduces power usage of the Pi by 30% which also reduces how hot it gets.

In this guide I’ll show you how to update the bootloader firmware (no, it’s not apt-get upgrade, it’s a new utility called rpi-eeprom!) and also show you how to make a recovery SD card if your firmware gets corrupted and needs to be reflashed.

Upgrading the Bootloader Firmware


To upgrade the firmware you should be running the latest Raspbian. Do not attempt this from another distribution.

If you want to use another distribution afterward that is great! I personally use my 64-bit Ubuntu Server 18.04.3 image most of the time, but not for this procedure!

Since the Raspberry Pi bootloader firmware is stored on a chip on the device you can update it to the latest with Raspbian and then go right back to using whatever you want. I personally have a separate SD card just for Raspbian that I use to periodically plug in and update the firmware.

Install rpi-eeprom

First we need to install the new bootloader update utility. We can do this with the following commands:

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade
sudo apt install rpi-eeprom

Once the utility is installed Raspbian will check at boot whether there are any critical bootloader firmware updates for your Pi.

Checking for Updates Manually

If you are like me and don’t want to wait around for Raspbian to decide whether do these updates there is a command to check for updates manually:

sudo rpi-eeprom-update

You will see output like this:

Bootloader EEPROM is up to date
CURRENT: Tue 10 Sep 10:41:50 UTC 2019 (1568112110)
 LATEST: Tue 10 Sep 10:41:50 UTC 2019 (1568112110)

If the firmware isn’t up to date it will look like this:

CURRENT: Tue 10 Sep 10:41:50 UTC 2019 (1568112110)
 LATEST: Wed 25 Sep 10:40:05 UTC 2019 (1569408005)

We now can see that there is updated firmware for our device. To install this update we will use the -a switch:

sudo rpi-eeprom-update -a

Your output should look like this:

CURRENT: Tue 10 Sep 10:41:50 UTC 2019 (1568112110)
 LATEST: Wed 25 Sep 10:40:05 UTC 2019 (1569408005)
Bootloader EEPROM update pending. Please reboot to apply the update.

Reboot now by typing sudo reboot and then run sudo rpi-eeprom-update again. This time it should tell you it is now up to date!

Changing rpi-eeprom’s Release Channel

By default you will only receive updates from Raspbian’s “critical” channel. This is a very conservative firmware update channel that will only give you very well tested firmware updates that are considered critical fixes for the device.

If you want to get the latest firmware updates and fixes you may want to try the “beta” channel. These updates haven’t been tested as long and could potentially break your bootloader so Raspbian only recommends using it if you are comfortable using the recovery tool to reflash your bootloader if something goes wrong. Check out the recovery section below for instructions on how to do this.

To switch to the beta channel we are going to edit the file /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update:

sudo nano /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update

Change the line FIRMWARE_RELEASE_STATUS=”critical” to:


Now you can run sudo rpi-eeprom-update and you should see a new update available.

View Bootloader Firmware Patch Notes

The latest official patch notes for all versions and changes are available in the rpi-eeprom GitHub repository

Disable Automatic Bootloader Firmware Updates

If you want to control when the updates are applied instead of leaving it up to Raspbian the autoupdating service can be disabled with the following command:

sudo systemctl mask rpi-eeprom-update

The startup service has now been disabled and automatic bootloader firmware updates will only be applied if you do it manually.

To undo this and reenable the service we will use the unmask command:

sudo systemctl unmask rpi-eeprom-update

Now automatic firmware updates are enabled again!

Bootloader Recovery

The downside of having an onboard bootloader is that if something breaks reformatting your SD card will not fix it. In this section I will cover how to use the official tools to reflash and recover your Pi’s bootloader.


Raspbian has a special recovery bootloader available on their downloads page. Grab the latest version.

You will also need a blank SD card formatted with FAT32 (the same type the /boot partition uses on a imaged Pi SD card).

If your card is bigger than 32 GB you need to be very careful here because most operating systems will try to format it as ex-FAT instead of regular FAT/FAT32. Windows won’t even show you an option to format a card bigger than 32 GB as FAT. If you have a card 32 GB or smaller it would be ideal to choose that one to avoid this issue.

Note: Do not try to cheat and use ex-FAT. This is *not* the same as “regular” FAT (also known as FAT32) and will NOT WORK.

When to Attempt Recovery

There is a simple procedure to tell if your bootloader is corrupt. Turn off your Pi completely and remove the SD card / all attached storage. Now plug your Pi back in with no storage media in it.

If your Pi’s bootloader is healthy you will see the green light blink a few times and then enter a pattern where it will blink 4 times and then have a long pause. It will repeat these 4 blinks / pause in an endless loop.

If your Pi’s bootloader is NOT healthy the green light will not blink. If this is the case it is time to do a bootloader recovery!

Recovery Procedure

Extract the files from the rpi-boot-eeprom-recovery zip file into a temporary folder. These files will be recovery.bin, pieeprom.bin and README.txt.

Now put those 3 files directly on the root of your blank FAT32 formatted SD card. Your recovery card is now prepped and ready!

Before powering up your device make sure that all USB devices are removed. Even keyboards have been known to cause issues so make sure absolutely everything is unplugged!

Now insert the SD card into the Pi and connect the power.

If the bootloader recovery is successful the green activity light will start blinking rapidly continuously (forever). In this case you have successfully recovered your bootloader! You may now insert a normal fully imaged SD card and it will boot normally again.

If anything other than a continuous rapidly blinking green light happens the recovery was not successful.

If Recovery Doesn’t Work

  • There is a known (and strange) issue with Raspberry Pi 4’s and 32 GB SD cards where the Pi will abort the boot. If this might apply to you then read this post.
  • Make sure you created your SD card correctly. A common pitfall is using cards above 32 GB and formatting them with ex-FAT instead of regular FAT/FAT32.
  • Make sure *all* USB devices are unplugged from the Pi
  • Try a different SD card if you have one available. SD cards do go bad all the time. If there’s any doubt here check out my Raspberry Pi storage benchmarks page to see the highest performing SD cards (you definitely want an A1 rated one).
  • Check your power cord. Make sure you are using a high quality USB-C power cord that is compatible with the Pi. Even if it was working before I have had several old Pi power supplies that worked for years die on me. If there’s any doubt grab a known reliable one like the Canakit USB-C Raspberry Pi 4 Power Supply

If you’ve gone through all the steps and are positive it’s not one of the above “gotcha” issues then it’s time to go deeper. You need to observe your Pi’s exact behavior when you plug it in (what the lights are doing). Here is a table of different blink patterns and what they mean:

Raspberry Pi 4 LED blink warnings
Raspberry Pi 4 LED blink warning table

If your Pi’s LED behavior matches any of these codes then we now have much more to go on to diagnose why your Pi won’t boot. Some of them are very obvious but they’re all worth a quick web search once you have matched it to a code.

If your Pi’s behavior does not match one of these codes head to the official sticky post on the Raspberry Pi forums and scroll to the very bottom (post #4 specifically for Raspberry Pi). This tracks ongoing boot issues with the Pi 4 that may affect your Pi and a whole bunch of things to try. If you get through that post go all the way up to post #1 and start going down the list.

Could My Pi Be Dead?

It’s absolutely possible. Things like power issues (surges etc), wiring breadboards incorrectly, etc. can kill your Pi completely. That being said, if you have a Pi 4 that appears to be dead and you’ve gone through all my troubleshooting steps / the official sticky post / you aren’t covered by warranty then I would hold onto it for now as it’s still very new and some problems are still being investigated with the bootloader.

I have definitely killed a couple myself. I had a 3B+ that I had been using for a year building images (basically beating the crap out of it) on that finally had a hardware failure and would no longer boot. I wasn’t too sad about this one because I absolutely beat the crud out of these devices and push them to the absolute limit.

My more heartbreaking one was that I have killed a 4 GB Pi 4 that I got right at the Pi 4’s launch. I left this Pi in a very hot area running an experimental image that didn’t have proper firmware on it for about 2.5 weeks and now upon powering it up the green light will start blinking like it’s about to start booting then the green light will freeze and stay stuck on forever. I have a couple other Pi 4’s so I know all my cards and power supplies are good.

Make sure you’ve reviewed the official sticky post I linked in the previous section before jumping to this conclusion though. These things are not fragile and over all the years of running this blog it’s pretty amazing I’ve only killed 2 of them with the insane things I try on them all the time.

I may be able to help if you want to leave a comment here with *exactly* what behavior you’re seeing when you try these procedures, when you plug it in with no SD card in it, when you plug it in with a SD card in it, any little details will help!

31 thoughts on “Raspberry Pi 4 Bootloader Firmware Updating / Recovery Guide”

  1. Avatar for stek29

    Ubuntu mounts BOOTFS at different location (/boot/firmware compared to Raspbian’s /boot):

    ubuntu $ mount | grep mmcblk0p1
    /dev/mmcblk0p1 on /boot/firmware
    raspbian $ mount | grep mmcblk0p1
    /dev/mmcblk0p1 on /boot

    Because of that rpi-eeprom-update script won’t do anything on ubuntu (since it copies installation files to wrong directory)

    so to update rpi eeprom/vl805 fw on ubuntu you’d need the following command:
    sudo BOOTFS=/boot/firmware ./rpi-eeprom-update -a

    official scripts (https://github.com/raspberrypi/rpi-eeprom) can be used on ubuntu (if you have vc userland tools), and tools can be installed in ubuntu via libraspberrypi-bin package.

  2. Avatar for Blinky

    I had to do an SD card recovery, and it looks like the green LED pattern has changed behavior when no boot device is present. It now blinks green twice very rapidly, then the green LED stays on. CURRENT: Thu 03 Sep 2020 12:11:43 PM UTC (1599135103)

  3. Avatar for sanezilla

    I wanted the newly released usb boot feature. I didn’t want the buggy beta version of that. Apparently there is now a “stable” branch of the firmware at github.

    I changed /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update to read:

    It worked!

  4. Avatar for Sam

    Today, 29 May 2020,I did a ‘full-upgrade.’ Now my Rpi4 4GB no longer boots. I tried both the latest BETA rpi-boot-eeprom-recovery and the earlier one dated 2020-04-16. Both, after installed on a 32 GB SD card and booted on the Pi4, gives the same continuously blinking green light, and the green screen, supposedly indicating a successful action. However, both give the same indication afterwards when booting the regular OS card:
    board: c03111
    boot: mode 6

    config.txt not found
    Read recover4.elf bytes 760544
    fixup4rc.dat not found
    Missing/empty ‘fixup4rc.dat’

    recover4.elf: is not compatible 0x0
    This board requires newer softwate. Get the latest…
    What next steps could I attempt to get this to work again. I also tried booting an original 16 GB SD card, with the same results as noted above.

  5. Avatar for Ma Tru

    how can i revert from beta to cricitical eeprom ? anyone who could help me currently installed the latest beta, raspberrian stil boots buth i want to revert it

    1. Avatar for Fluflis

      Sudo nano /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update
      Change from “beta” to “critical”

      At this point you want to update manually to the latest critical:
      sudo rpi-eeprom-update -d -f /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/critical/pieeprom-2020-09-10.bin

      update the latest that you find in /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/critical/ , mine was September 10 2020 like above.

      Reboot after that. Verify with “vcgencmd bootloader_version” that it is the correct. You’re done!

  6. Avatar for Chris Kuliukas

    My Pi 4 is blinking 4 times indicating start*.elf not found, but when put into another SD reader the FAT32 has a start.elf just fine. I then reformat the SD to have the bootloader recoverer and it still just blinks four times indicating start*.elf not found, if I take the card out it blinks four times indicating start*.elf not found. I don’t understand how it can say start*.elf not found when there is no card in, yet not report that it can’t read a FAT partition; surely it has to read the FAT partition first?

    Why is start*.elf not found / four blinks apparently the error code both for an empty FAT SD card, but also the error code for no SD card inserted?

  7. Avatar for secwiz

    I have tried all of the troubleshooting tips listed above, pi still won’t boot. Green light beeps rapidly for a moment, then turns off. No display, no ip address assigned via Ethernet cable. I’ve been googling stuff for a week, nothing.

  8. Avatar for Giles

    Hi James,
    Submitting benchmarks doesn’t work for me.
    Added -v in the submit results curl command:

    > Content-Length: 77868
    > Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=————————07a47f1dce4bfb76
    * Connection state changed (MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS == 100)!
    < HTTP/2 302

    * HTTP error before end of send, stop sending

  9. Avatar for Thomas

    Hi James,
    flash drive…
    i got inspired by all your posts and are about to order a 4GB Pi 4 with the Sandisk Solid State Flash drive. But for the SD card I stumble upon this above:
    “…SD cards (you definitely want an A1 rated one)”

    I thought the same, but I’ve checked Wikipedia about the card specs, and there is:
    Class min write speed min speed at random
    read write
    Class 1 (A1) 10 MB/s 1500 IOPS 500 IOPS
    Class 2 (A2) 10 MB/s 4000 IOPS 2000 IOPS

    Also regarding the prices A2 is more expensive.

    Just wondering.

  10. Avatar for Balsey Dean De Witt
    Balsey Dean De Witt

    I got my Pi4 4GB model in early January 2020. I was able to overclock it to 2GHz and GPU 700 MHz. I did an update of the firmware and now I can’t overclock! Now thinking of it, this so called firmware was to reduce the voltage to make it run cooler, maybe that is why I can’t overclock? I can’t find any other article where anyone has had this problem. They must be out there, what’s up? I would like to know how to flash this eeprom back to original because that was really stupid updating it anyway because it did run, really good overclocked too! HELP!

    1. Avatar for marco

      I experienced same trouble with the last update “beta” (bootloader 2020-01-17 version vl805 000137ad) with overclock (arm_freq=2000, gpu_freq=600, over_voltage=6) (with a geeekpi mini double ventirad, silent and efficient)
      No answer after a post on the raspberrypi forum !
      Is your trouble with “critical” or “beta” way bootloader update ? These 2 ways have the same vl805 000137ad update binded to USB
      I thing the best way is to revert to the preceding version but which ? Only bootloader (pieeprom.bin) or vl805 or the 2 ?
      First I will try to revert to the bootloader version (pieeprom-2020-01-09.bin) and see the result

    2. Avatar for peter

      I also experienced the same problem with my new PI4 2GB, I bought in early February 2020. After modify config.txt and reboot, PI wrote out couple of lines and stuck. Fortunately I managed rewrite config.txt back o in an SD adaptor. PI4 is configured to boot from SSD. I used overvoltage 6, arm freq 2000 a GPU 600. With another PI4, from autum 2019, I set overvoltage 4 and it worked fine.

  11. Avatar for marco79

    I updated the bootloader of my Pi4 according to this tutorial. It was still on 13701 (May 10, 2019).

    After „sudo reboot“ the Pi didn‘t boot anymore. 🙁 I successfully fixed the bootloader with the recovery method but unfortunately my former SD card won‘t boot anymore. So my whole system is broken. I‘m using the Pi as DHCP server, DNS (Pihole) and I had lots of services running there (UniFi Controller, tvheadend server, python scripts etc.).

    Never change a running system. ;(
    I don‘t even have a micro-HDMI adapter since I forgot to order it and never needed it until today. The Pi4 was running headless for months without a problem. So without SSH access I‘m basically „blind“ and have no idea what‘s going on.

    Be careful and make sure to have a recent backup!

  12. Avatar for Paul

    Works fine in Libreelec too (check and update, no apt install required), guess the 18.5 Kodi packagers were aware. Thx for the original post, I had no idea that it had an on-board firmware image now

  13. Avatar for fenix

    Found that someone cannot update the firmware because they(I) are using SSD as system boot clone from SD card. After I change the /boot/cmdline.txt to the original and boot from SD card, apt-get full-upgrade and rpi-eeprom-update -a with reboot, the firmware update success. Then I change the cmdline.txt back to reboot SSD and check rpi-eeprom-update, it will said firmware is up-to-date.

  14. Avatar for Daniel

    The bootloader (and associated firmware) actually reduce the power consumption of both the USB controller and core SoC, with the USB controller accounting for about half the power saving. Even the most USB-heavy use cases see some benefit from ASPM (ASPM = Active-State Power Management).

  15. Avatar for James

    Is there any special precautions to take into account if you are using the an SDD for the root partition? I followed the guide to do it from this site.

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers

      Hey Tommy,

      The utility is open source at https://github.com/raspberrypi/rpi-eeprom so it’s not closed source or a precompiled binary or anything. Looking at the source code you would need to have very up to date Raspberry Pi userland tools (this one uses vcmailbox and dtparam). Here’s the code for the main update part:

      if [ -f "${BOOTLOADER_UPDATE_IMAGE}" ]; then
      # Bootloader EEPROM chip-select is muxed with audio pin so disable audio
      # LDO first to avoid sending noise to analog audio.
      "${VCMAILBOX}" 0x00030056 4 4 0 > /dev/null || true
      dtparam audio=off

      # Switch the SPI pins to boot EEPROM
      dtoverlay spi-gpio40-45
      modprobe spidev
      modprobe spi-bcm2835

      prepareImage "${BOOTLOADER_UPDATE_IMAGE}"

      echo "Applying bootloaer update ${BOOTLOADER_UPDATE_IMAGE}"
      flashrom -p "linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=${SPI_SPEED}" -w "${TMP_EEPROM_IMAGE}" || die "flashrom EEPROM update failed"

      dtparam -R spi-gpio40-45
      dtparam audio=on
      ${VCMAILBOX} 0x00030056 4 4 1 > /dev/null || true

      I personally haven’t tried it since I have already bricked one 4 GB Pi 4 since launch which has lowered my appetite for trying this. That may change some day as I continue to get more adventurous

      Since there aren’t a lot of distributions that have up to date userland tools like vcmailbox it would be inadvisable to to try it if the code I pasted above makes you uncomfortable. For my Ubuntu 18.04.3 image I build the very latest userland tools every update so I know they are up to date in there but it looks like you also need to have working spidev and several other kernel modules so even with the latest tools on mine there’s a bunch of things I’d have to double check.

      So the final answer would be: probably in time this will appear in some other distributions!

      1. Avatar for Tim

        The latest userland tools are all that is necessary to utilize rpi-eeprom-update. You do not need the latest spidev or any other kernel modules in order to update. The default and recommended method which rpi-eeprom-update uses is to copy recovery.bin, pieeprom.upd and vl805.bin along with signature files for each to the boot partition. Upon reboot the Pi’s bootloader will load and execute recovery.bin which then flashes the update files after checking that they match the signatures in signature files to prevent flashing corrupt firmware files. recovery.bin is then renamed to recovery.000 to prevent it form executing the next time the Pi is rebooted.

        I have successfully updated multiple Pi’s without incident under Ubuntu.

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