Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

Minecraft Update Aquatic
Minecraft Update Aquatic

Based on the comments and feedback from my older guides I have added many requested features and fixes. It has changed so much since 1.12’s World of Color that my old guide is now obsolete and it’s time for the 1.13 Aquatic era update!

This script and guide are written to help you get a great performing Raspberry Pi Minecraft server up and running in only a few minutes.

I play on my server with 3-4 players on Survival mode without any difficulty on default settings (vanilla view distance of 10 and normal entity spawns/ranges). Above that number of players you will want to look into hardware with more memory but if you just want to play with a few friends it will be an excellent experience!

Status Update On Minecraft 1.14.4 (August 25th 2019)

1.14.4 has fixed most of the performance issues and is now the stable version!

The Raspberry Pi 4 has been tested and is fully supported. The extra memory is making a very nice performance difference (especially with 1.14.4) on 2GB and 4GB test models.

If you are currently running a solid state drive setup and are upgrading to a Raspberry Pi 4 follow my instructions in this guide to set up USB booting. The old native USB booting isn’t available yet in the Pi 4 and my guide will show you a workaround and get you running on solid state again.

Features

  • Sets up fully operational Minecraft server in a couple of minutes
  • Raspbian / Ubuntu / Debian distributions supported
  • Installs and configures OpenJDK 11 (or higher if available)
  • Sets up Minecraft as a system service with option to autostart at boot
  • Automatic backups to minecraft/backups when server restarts
  • Updates automatically to the latest version when server is started
  • Easy control of server with start.sh, stop.sh and restart.sh scripts
  • Optional scheduled daily restart of Pi using cron
  • Optional configuration of video memory to 16MB (default 64MB) and overclocking MicroSD reader to 100Hz (default 50Hz) for maximum performance

Requirements

  • Raspberry Pi model with 1 GB of RAM or higher. Basically a Raspberry Pi 2B or higher. (No Zero unfortunately, 512MB is not enough RAM to do this, I’ve tried!)
  • Headless Linux distribution such as Raspbian Buster Lite, Ubuntu Server 18.04.2, or any Debian based distribution (GUI distros can be used at the expense of available RAM and server performance)
  • Solid state drive highly recommended but not required.
    You can get a SSD setup on a Pi for less than most Micro SD cards cost. See my article here for details
  • If using MicroSD you want to be using a high range card otherwise you will really be hurting on IO when the server is reading/writing chunks of terrain! Click here for MicroSD card benchmarks/recommendations.

Recommended Gear

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B 2GB

Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

StarTech 2.5″ SATA to USB 3.0 Adapter -AND- Kingston A400 SSD 120GB SATA 3 2.5” Solid State Drive

Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4
Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

Or for a compact setup: SanDisk Extreme Pro 128GB USB Solid State Flash Drive

Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

Best benchmarking Micro SD card: SanDisk Extreme 64GB MicroSD Card

Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

Choosing a Linux Distribution

The most important consideration when choosing which flavor of Linux to run the server on is simple: available RAM. Headless Linux distributions such as Raspbian Lite that don’t have a built in GUI have substantially more memory available for the Minecraft server.

Our biggest obstacle when running a Minecraft server on the Pi is available RAM since 1 GB is extremely low for this type of server. To have a playable experience you should not be running anything else on the Pi so all memory is available to be used.

After testing on many different distros I am finding Raspbian Lite and Ubuntu Server 18.04.2 32-bit to be the best choices. These distributions come with very few background processes and have rock solid support and performance.

64-bit vs 32-bit

There’s a lot of discussion in the Pi world about the up and coming aarch64 64-bit distributions vs. armhf 32-bit distributions. They have been and continue to improve dramatically. There are already use cases where 64-bit is far superior such as video encoding, advanced compression, etc.

So how about for running a Minecraft server? I have been testing extensively with Ubuntu Server 18.04 64-bit and the Debian Buster 64-bit. I have consistently had worse performance and stability than on 32-bit versions of the exact same distros.

But how can that be? It’s certainly true that Minecraft servers benefit in CPU performance from 64-bit versions of Java. The answer is actually incredibly simple: memory. The server running on a 64-bit Java Virtual Machine uses a minimum of about 100 MB more memory. This makes perfect sense because 64 bits > 32 bits by definition!

The Raspberry Pi’s 1 GB of memory has been the biggest obstacle for this project since the very beginning. Back when I first went into the Paper Minecraft developer IRC room and told them what I was trying to do I was practically laughed out of the chat room for even thinking of trying this. Most Minecraft server branches including vanilla can’t even start on the Pi because of the limited memory.

For a dedicated Minecraft server on the Pi I very highly recommend staying 32-bit. You will have more available memory which means it will be much faster and more stable. Since memory is our bottleneck the increased CPU throughput does not help us and losing *any* of our memory is disastrous!

If the Raspberry Pi 4 has more memory like we all expect it to this recommendation will change completely. Even 2 GB of memory would make the extra memory that 64-bit uses a non-issue and the CPU throughput performance gains very desirable. For now though stay 32-bit for a Minecraft server!

Tested Distributions

Raspbian Lite – It’s Raspbian. It has very low memory usage and is the official distribution of the Raspberry Pi. The server runs very well on this. It’s overall the best choice. The Buster release has made OpenJDK 11 available on it so it’s no longer behind the rest of the distros.

Ubuntu Server 18.04.2 – Ubuntu Server is my favorite Linux distro. I use it for nearly all of my projects. The performance of the 32-bit armhf version is on par with Raspbian. It’s a great choice! Click here for my Ubuntu setup guide for Raspberry Pi. The 64-bit version is not a fantastic choice and not recommended because of the higher memory usage. Stick with 32-bit and you’ll be a happy camper with Ubuntu Server.

Debian Buster 64-bit – Debian is the distribution Raspbian is based on. This version is a preview of Debian “Buster” which is the successor to Stretch and will be the next version of Raspbian when it is released. I like this distribution but it is currently still unofficial and unsupported. Performance and stability was less than Ubuntu and Raspbian.

Benchmark Your Storage

Make sure your storage is running fast enough to be an effective Minecraft server. I wrote a benchmark for this purpose to make this extremely easy. To get accurate results make sure nothing is running when the benchmarking is taking place.

Run the benchmark by pasting/typing:

sudo systemctl stop minecraft
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/TheRemote/PiBenchmarks/master/Storage.sh | sudo bash

Ideally you will score around 1000 for a good quality Micro SD card (and much higher for solid state storage). A low score (< 700) here indicates here that it is probably time to upgrade to a solid state drive or a faster Micro SD card. Click here to view all the existing benchmarks.

You can still run the server if you’d like with a low storage score but be advised when operations like saving the server’s blocks take place the people online may experience quite a big of lag!

Installation

SSH into your Raspberry Pi and paste the following commands:

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/TheRemote/RaspberryPiMinecraft/master/SetupMinecraft.sh
chmod +x SetupMinecraft.sh
./SetupMinecraft.sh

The script will setup the Minecraft sever and ask you some questions on how to configure it. I’ll explain here what they mean.

“Enter amount of memory in megabytes to dedicate to the Minecraft server” – The amount of memory that will be dedicated to the Minecraft server. The more the better, but you must leave some room for the operating system background processes.

If you exceed the total available memory either the server will crash or the Pi will get incredibly slow to the point where your SSH session will start timing out. The setup script will make a recommendation to you which is your available memory – 10% for headroom. If you aren’t sure what to put just go with the recommended amount.

Note for Raspberry Pi 4: Currently on 32-bit Raspbian 2700 MB is the maximum that Linux will let us allocate in a 32 bit environment. The script has been updated to check for this as the server will not start if it is set over 2700M on a 32 bit server. 64 bit operating systems will be able to allocate all available memory as Pi 4 support rolls out for them.

“Start Minecraft server at startup automatically (y/n)?” – This will set the Minecraft service to start automatically when your Pi boots. This is great because whenever you want to play you can just plug it in and go without having to SSH in.

“Automatically reboot Pi and update server at 4am daily (y/n)?” – This will add a cron job to the server that reboots the Pi every day at 4am. This is great because every time the server restarts it backs up the server and updates to the latest version. See the “Scheduled Daily Reboots” section below for information on how to customize the time or remove the reboot.

That is it for the setup script. The server will finish configuring and start!

First Run

The first time you run the server it will take a little longer to start since it is generating all the server data. If you try to log in before it fully starts you will get a connection timeout error. Watch for the line: “Timings Reset”. This is the last line that prints when the server is ready to rock and roll. At this point you will be able to connect successfully.

The very first time you log into the server it will be slow for about 1-2 minutes. This is because since nobody has logged in before the server has to scramble to generate all the chunks within your view distance (10 by default) and send them to you/store them. During this time you may not be able to see very far and if you try to destroy blocks there will be noticeable lag from when they break to when they actually disappear.

Don’t panic! This will go away within a couple of minutes as the Pi catches up with all the first time login stuff it needs to do. Performance stabilizes and it will feel very much like the offline experience after that.

If you are hosting for a few friends I’d recommend logging in for the first time right after you set up the server instead of having several people nail a blank server at first startup. This gets it out of the way and when everyone is ready to log in the starting area chunks will be fully fleshed out and the Pi just has to read them. It’s an order of magnitude faster for the Pi to read chunks than to generate and store chunks.

In my experience after the initial login exploring new parts of the server doesn’t cause any lag even though new chunks are being generated. The reason for this is that when you’re walking it’s really only having to generate a new chunk as you get close to the border instead of a huge square area of chunks in all directions and all at the same time like during the first login.

Changing Minecraft Client Version

If you are wisely running the “stable” branch instead of the “development” branch there will be times where you need to select the version of Minecraft to run otherwise you will get an error message that your client is outdated when you try to log in.

Fortunately this is very easy. Open up the Minecraft launcher and instead of hitting “Play” choose “Launch Options” in the menu at the top of the window. It will look like this:

Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4
Minecraft Launcher “Launch Options” Tab

Click the “Add new” button and pick which version you want to add. You can optionally gave it a name or just click save.

Now when you go back to the “News” tab you will see a dropdown arrow where you can select which version of Minecraft you want to play!

Start, Stop and Restart Server

The server can be started, stopped and restarted two different ways. You can use the provided scripts in the Minecraft folder or you can use systemctl. Here are the commands:

cd ~/minecraft
./start.sh
./stop.sh
./restart.sh

-OR-

sudo systemctl start minecraft
sudo systemctl stop minecraft
sudo systemctl restart minecraft

Automatic Backups

The server backs up each time it starts. This helps you recover easily if something goes wrong. This system works best if you configured the server to restart daily since it means you will have a backup every day.

To access these backups type:

cd ~/minecraft/backups
ls

When a backup is made the filename will be the date and time the backup was taken. If you need to restore a backup it’s very easy. Substitute the timestamp in my example to the backup you want to roll back to. Type:

cd ~/minecraft
./stop.sh
rm -rf world world_nether world_the_end
tar -xf backups/2019.02.15.22.06.30.tar.gz
./start.sh

Your world has now been restored! It’s a good idea to download these backups off the Pi periodically just in case the Pi’s storage fails.

Scheduled Daily Reboots

The daily reboots are scheduled using cron. It’s very easy to customize the time your server restarts.

To change the time that the server restarts type: crontab -e

This will open a window that will ask you to select a text editor (I find nano to be the easiest) and will show the cronjobs scheduled on the Pi. The Minecraft one will look like the following:

0 4 * * * /home/ubuntu/minecraft/restart.sh
Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4

There are 5 fields here. The default restart time is set to reboot at 0 minutes of the 4th hour of the day (4 AM). The other 3 fields are left as * to represent every day of every month. Make any desired changes here and press Ctrl+X to exit nano and update the cronjob.

To remove the daily reboot simply delete the line and save.

Installing Plugins

The server supports plugins that are compatible with Bukkit / Spigot / Paper. A popular place that you can get plugins is at where there are thousands of them!

To install a plugin you simply download the .jar to the minecraft/plugins folder and restart the server. For example, WorldGuard is a very popular plugin that lets you add protection to different areas of your server.

To install this plugin on our Minecraft server we would use the following commands:

cd ~/minecraft/plugins
wget https://dev.bukkit.org/error?aspxerrorpath=/projects/worldguard/files/latest
sudo systemctl restart minecraft

The server will restart and the plugin will be installed. It’s that simple! To use the plugin refer to the documentation on the plugin download page to find out which commands you use to configure/interact with it.

Warning: be advised that plugins are the #1 issue for performance degradation on Minecraft servers. This isn’t because all plugins are bad. Some plugins are coded very inefficiently or perform features that require a lot of hooks in the code.

You should be careful about what plugins you install on the server and if you start having bad performance disable your plugins one by one until you find the culprit!

Reconfigure / Update Scripts

The scripts can always be reconfigured and updated by downloading the latest SetupMinecraft.sh and running the installer again. It will update all of the scripts in the Minecraft directory and reinstall the startup service for you.

Running SetupMinecraft.sh again will also give you a chance to reconfigure options such as the memory dedicated to the server, daily reboots, starting the server on boot, etc.

This will not overwrite your world or any other data so it is safe to run!

Port Forwarding

If everyone on your server is on the same LAN or WiFi network as you then you don’t need to do this. If you want people to connect from outside your local network then you need to set up port forwarding on your router.

The process for this is different for every router so the best thing to do is just look at your router and find the model # and put that in google with port forwarding for easy instructions on how to do it for your specific router.

You want to forward port 25565. The type of connection is TCP if your router asks. Once you do this people will be able to connect to your Minecraft server through your public IP address. This is different than your local IP which is usually a 192.x.x.x or 10.x.x.x. If you don’t know what that is just go to google and type “what’s my ip” and Google will kindly tell you!

Wired vs. Wireless

Going with an ethernet (wired) connection is going to be faster and more reliable. There’s so much wireless traffic and other interference in the air that running your server on WiFi is not recommended.

Even if it is working great 99% of the time it can ruin your experience very quickly if the WiFi drops for a couple of seconds and you get blown up by a creeper!

All that being said, the server works fine on wireless. The script will work fine as is with a wireless connection.

Conclusion

OpenJDK’s better garbage collection added in recent releases has made running a server on the Raspberry Pi feel great! We can run at the default view distance of 10 with default entity settings.

If you have any feedback or suggestions let me know in the comment section. A lot of the new developments in this script were directly from comments to the older articles.

Have fun!

186 thoughts on “Raspberry Pi Minecraft Server Script w/ Startup Service 1.14.4”

  1. Avatar for Tarrant

    Hello James,
    I’m also suffering from the “There is no screen to be resumed matching minecraft”-problem. I had reinstalled a clean version of raspbian lite a couple of times so far with no luck.
    I followed the advice you gave Achim ealier in the year although it seems to have had no effect.
    Thank you for the work nonetheless!!

    1. Avatar for Tarrant

      So I just managed to get around this by connecting my Pi to a different network for initial setup. Although now I’m having problems with this:

      [13:27:08 WARN]: Can’t keep up! Is the server overloaded? Running 24630ms or 492 ticks behind

      The number of tickets will increase and decrease until the server crashes.
      Any ideas?

        1. Avatar for Tarrant

          Hi James,

          I’m using a Raspberry Pi 3 B+ with a clean install of Raspbian Lite (With the exception of the server itself).

          1. Avatar for jamesachambers
            jamesachambers

            Can you try removing your world folder and starting fresh? I wonder if you got hit with one of the new 1.14 bugs that everyone has been talking about!

            1. Avatar for jamesachambers
              jamesachambers

              I’m investigating this right now. I’m sure it’s a 1.14 issue as everyone noticed that it uses more resources to run than 1.13 did.

              So far it starts out high but then goes back down to 100 ticks behind:

              [20:59:45 WARN]: remote__ moved too quickly! 28.515927803105512,1.9755759117863079,25.361194249335057
              [21:00:32 WARN]: Can’t keep up! Is the server overloaded? Running 49957ms or 999 ticks behind
              [21:01:07 WARN]: Can’t keep up! Is the server overloaded? Running 5354ms or 107 ticks behind
              [21:02:40 WARN]: Can’t keep up! Is the server overloaded? Running 5024ms or 100 ticks behind

              1. Avatar for jamesachambers
                jamesachambers

                I have made some progress. Can both of you download the latest SetupMinecraft.sh and run it to update your scripts?

                I spent several hours playing and tweaking today to find the best settings for 1.14.2 and it is running tons better.

                -James

              2. Avatar for jamesachambers
                jamesachambers

                I’ve completed my investigation by both playing all day and spending a lot of time with the Paper Minecraft developers in their Discord server.
                This is actually a community-wide problem right now. Servers big and small continue to suffer horrible TPS drops, instability, long server freezes upon world save, and a multitude of other issues.
                Because of this I have returned the script to the 1.13.2 stable branch but am leaving the option to install the “development” branch if people want to try it. I’ve put a status update at the top of the post and will continue to update. I’m sure the Paper devs will fix Mojang’s mess and once they do we will move it to the stable branch!

                1. Avatar for Mako

                  Hi Jamesachambers
                  What does this mean to us player? How do I get back to 1.13.2? Can you help me how I can get back to 1.13.2 Client and Server?
                  Thx 😀

                  1. Avatar for jamesachambers
                    jamesachambers

                    Hey Mako,

                    Absolutely! Let’s start with the client. Open up the Minecraft launcher and go to “Launch Options”. Now click “Add New” button. Here you’ll see a dropdown where you can select which release you want to add to the launcher. Choose 1.13.2 and then save. Now when you go back to the first tab “News” you’ll see that your play button now has a dropdown arrow that lets you pick the version. That’s it for the client!

                    For the server download and run SetupMinecraft again. During the install it will ask you if you want to pick the stable (1.13.2) or development version (1.14.2). Just press enter here and it will pick the stable branch for you. Make sure you restore a backup of your 1.13.2 server before you upgraded. The server takes a backup of the whole server every time you run it and stores it in the “minecraft/backups” folder. If you just want to start a new server you can skip this step. The exact commands to restore a backup are in the article if you need to know them!

                    Let me know how it goes.

                    1. Avatar for Mako

                      Hey James

                      It work well! I could get back to 1.13.2 but as soon I restored my worl from 1.14.2 to the old update nobody could join. I got a lot of errors and then the server restart… What am I doing wrong?

                      Thx for the amazing work and support you do!!! 😀

                    2. Avatar for jamesachambers
                      jamesachambers

                      Hey Mako,

                      Do you have a backup from 1.13.2? It does not like downgrading afterward since the new village update adds types to the server that 1.13.2 doesn’t understand. Can you check your backups folder for backups from 1.13.2?

                    3. Avatar for Mako

                      Hi James

                      Sadly no. We started with the Client 1.14.2. so no Worl on 1.13.2.

                      But thank you for the quick response. 🙂

  2. Avatar for jeff darvy

    Hi, is it possible to downgrade to 1.13.2? if so, how to downgrade? I’d like to run dynamap on my server.

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers
      jamesachambers

      Sure, if you’d like to downgrade open up start.sh and replace 1.14.1 with 1.13.2 and it will change your server to that version!

  3. Avatar for Dylan

    I saw a version of paper that was 1.14 . Are you working on a new bash file or is there an easy way for the server to update itself.

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers
      jamesachambers

      Hey Dylan,

      I’ve updated the script to get 1.14.1. If you run the SetupMinecraft script again it will retrieve 1.14.1.

      -James

  4. Avatar for Stewart

    Hello,

    I am struggling with my pie server. I have tried a few different sets of instructions and the build seams to go well, but I can not find my server from my windows Minecraft screen. I have tried the wired and the wireless IP. The only tutorial that has worked so far is if I run a Pocket Edition Server.

    Any thoughts?

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers
      jamesachambers

      At the moment it does. I should probably change this though because it would be easy to make it use the world name from server.properties. I’ll add this in soon!

  5. Avatar for Justin P

    I have an already existing server on PC, but I would like to port it to Raspberry Pi, would it be possible? (I also use CraftBukkit with a couple lag fixing plugins.)

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers

      Absolutely! Since it’s the Java version there’s no portability issues between platforms. You’d just put your server.properties and world folder on the Pi.

      The plugins would be the same. You could even copy the plugins from your existing server. Paper is in the same source tree as Bukkit and Spigot so it should be very easy to do this!

  6. Avatar for Harrison C

    Hey James,

    I know, I know,
    1.14 just came out, but do you have any plans for a rebuild to upgrade to this?

    -Harrison

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers

      Hey Harrison,

      Most definitely! Right now I’m waiting for the Paper / Spigot version of 1.14 to drop which is usually pretty quick after these new releases.

      It should appear at https://papermc.io/downloads when it is available and I will update all of the code to use it!

      -James

  7. Avatar for Jason B.

    Hi again,

    in addition to my last post I’d like to mention that by adding

    [Service]

    TimeoutStartSec=600

    to /etc/systemd/system/minecraft.service you may overcome a timeout when wget from updating to the most recent paperclip version takes some more time. Otherwise systemctl kills the minecraft server and you may wonder why it doesn’t run after the nightly reboot.

    Cheers
    Jason

    1. Avatar for jamesachambers

      Great finds Jason!

      I’ll update the service and take a look at the restart script and get those fixed!

      -James

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